Additional Resources

Additional Resources
Research Studies
Canada Revenue Agency

Resource Videos

Research Studies

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Purpose of Research:To examine how experiences with the arts (music, visual art, drama, dance, and media art) can foster emotional self-regulation for students with attention and/or hyperactivity challenges from the perspective of (1)  junior-intermediate teachers and (2) students. Who Can Participate?1) Three generalist teachers (grade 4-8) who teach or have taught students with attention and/or […]
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Purpose of Research:Researchers at MacAnxiety Research Centre (McMaster University) are interested in learning more about how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) sufferers manage their symptoms. We are inviting you to participate in our study by completing an online survey. Who Can Participate?To be eligible to participate, you must be at least 18 years of age and have […]
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Purpose of Research:To examine how experiences with the arts (music, visual art, drama, dance, and media art) can foster emotional self-regulation for students with attention and/or hyperactivity challenges from the perspective of (1)  junior-intermediate teachers and (2) students. Who Can Participate?1) Three generalist teachers (grade 4-8) who teach or have taught students with attention and/or […]
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Better Nights, Better days for children with neurodevelopmental disorders

Purpose of ResearchUp to 90% of Canadian children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) experience insomnia symptoms including trouble falling asleep, staying asleep, and/or waking too early. Insomnia leads to poor sleep quality and quantity, as well as increased challenges with academic, emotional, social, and physical functioning, and can contribute to increased symptom presentation in children with […]
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CRA Disability Tax Credit and ADHD


  The Canada Revenue Agency allows a Disability Tax Credit (DTC) for those individuals and their dependents who have 'a severe mental or physical development that causes marked restrictions all or almost all of the time in any of the basic activities of daily living and the impairment is prolonged (that is, has lasted or is expected to last for a continuous period of at least twelve months)'
  • 'Marked restrictions' include sight, hearing, mobility, speech, memory, thought, and perception
  • 'Marked restrictions' must occur despite: having therapy and the use of appropriate devices and medications
  • Receiving disability benefits does not guarantee eligibility for the Disability Tax Credit

To Apply

Additional Resources

CADDAC Documents

  CRA DTC T2201 general suggestions CRA DTC T2201 cover letter suggestions

CRA Child Disability Benefit (CDB)



The Child Disability Benefit is a tax-free monthly payment made to families who care for a child under age 18 with a severe and prolonged impairment in physical or mental functions.




To get the CDB:

If you are already getting the Canada child benefit for your child who is eligible for the disability tax credit, you do not need to apply for the CDB. You will get it automatically.

Visit this CRA webpage for more information

Medical Expenses

In addition to the standard medical expenses such as prescription drugs and a variety of assistive devices, in 1999 the Federal government recognized that individuals with learning disabilities may have a need for supplementary educational service.

These expenses may also include tuition costs if a patient, (for example, a dependent);

  • suffers from a behavioural problem arising out of a mental or physical disability,
  • or suffering from a learning disability, including dyslexia,
  • who attends a school, that specializes in the care and training of persons who have the same type of problem or disability,

and qualifies under medical expense credit 118.2.Therefore the expenses paid for the patient are qualifying medical expenses, even though some part of the expense could be construed as being tuition fees.


The school need not limit its enrolment to persons who require specialized care and training.


Refundable Medical Expense Supplement


You may also qualify for a refundable medical expense supplement, if you have claimed eligible medical expenses and your income falls between the specified amounts. You may claim both the refund and expenses.


Patient Assistance Programs


Concerta and Adderall XR



Canada Disability Savings Grant

The Canada Disability Savings Grant is an amount that the Government of Canada can pay directly into an RDSP. The CRA will pay matching grants of 300%, 200%, or 100%, depending on the beneficiary’s adjusted family net income and the amount that has been contributed.


An RDSP can collect a maximum of $3,500 in matching CESG grants in one year, and up to $70,000 over the beneficiary’s lifetime. A beneficiary's RDSP can receive a grant on contributions made until December 31 of the year in which the beneficiary turns 49.


Can provide up to $3,500 a year of direct assistance, depending on income, up to a lifetime limit of $70,000.


Visit this CRA webpage for more information

Canada Disability Savings Bond

The bond is an amount paid by the Government of Canada directly into an RDSP.


The government will pay a bond of up to $1,000 a year to low-income Canadians with disabilities.


No contributions have to be made to get the bond and the lifetime bond limit is $20,000.


This bond is paid into an RDSP until the year in which the beneficiary turns 49.


The amount of the bond is based on the beneficiary’s adjusted family net income as follows: the beneficiary family income thresholds are indexed each year to inflation. 


Visit this CRA webpage for more information

Registered Disability Savings Plan (RDSP)

If you have been approved for the Disability Tax Credit, you may be eligible for the Registered Disability Savings Plan (RDSP). 


RDSPs are similar to Registered Education Savings Plans (RESPs) in that contributions you and others make to the plan are not tax deductible. The money you invest grows tax-free inside the plan until funds are withdrawn.


RDSPs can be set up through your financial institution or financial planner.




The individual must:

  • Be a Canadian resident under the age of 60
  • Have a valid social insurance number
  • Are eligible for and/or already receiving the Disability Tax Credit (DTC)


Additional Info

  • Parents and grandparents can also arrange for a tax-free rollover of their Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) and Registered Retirement Income Funds (RRIF) to the RDSP upon their death.
  • Using an RDSP does not impact on federal benefits such as the Goods and Services Tax Credit, Old Age Security, Employment Insurance and the Canada Child Tax Benefit.
  • Using an RDSP has very little impact on provincial social assistance payments.


Jordan's Principle

Jordan's Principle was developed to support the needs of First Nations children for products, services, and supports that might otherwise not be accessed in a timely manner.


For more information please visit this CRA webpage

Scholarships and Bursaries

Award: $2000

Field of study: All disciplines are eligible

Type of award: Applicable towards full-time studies of a first undergraduate degree.


  • Be Canadian citizens or permanent residents of Canada
  • Be diagnosed with a permanent disability which is documented and is the primary disability for which they
    are applying*
  • Be in full time studies;
  • Have second or third year standing in a first bachelor degree program in September 2018;
  • Have a minimum cumulative average of 80% (or equivalent) over the last 3 terms of available marks**.
    Non-academic courses such as career or personal development related courses will not be considered.

Duration: One year; may be renewed upon re-application.



The Justin Eves Foundation in co-operation with the Cambrian College and the Government of Ontario has established the Floyd Laughren Bursary. Floyd Laughren, from the Sudbury Region is the former Minister of Finance for the Province of Ontario.

The Floyd Laughren Bursary is administered by the Glen Crombie Centre for Disability Services at Cambrian College.
The Structure of the bursary is as follows:

  • Available to a student with a learning disability in any program area at Cambrian College.
  • Consideration for students with demonstrated financial need.
  • Consideration for students who display a sincere effort and commitment to their academic endeavours.
  • Nominations are accepted from faculty and peers.
  • Final selection made by a committee including the Director and staff of the Glen Crombie Centre for Disability Services.

For further information please to go Cambrian College Disability Services at 


A Disability Bursary is available through the Ontario Ministry of Education. Available in May, deadline based on length of your study period.

This bursary provides up to $2,000 per academic year for students with permanent or temporary disabilities who require education-related services or equipment, such as tutors, note-takers, interpreters, braillers or technical aids, that are directly related to their disability.

You may be eligible if you:

  • have applied and are eligible for OSAP for Full-Time Students and have at least $1 in calculated need; or
  • have applied and are eligible for an Ontario Special Bursary if you are a part-time student;


  • are enrolled full-time or part-time in a program at a designated postsecondary institution;
  • are an Ontario resident as defined under either OSAP for Full-Time Students and/or the Ontario Special Bursary Program.
  • have a permanent or temporary disability
  • have disability-related educational costs (e.g. note-takers, vision/learning aids) that result from your disability and are not covered by another agency.

See: for all eligibility details.

How to apply: Applicants are advised to complete their application with the assistance of staff from their school’s Office for Students with Disabilities. If your school does not have an Office for Students with Disabilities, you may contact the Ministry for assistance as per instructions on the application. Use the Application for Bursary for Students with Disabilities and Canada Student Grant for Services and Equipment for Persons with Permanent Disabilities (BSWD/CSG-PDSE). For students attending a public college or university in Ontario, applications must be submitted to the Financial Aid Office at their school. For students attending a private institution in Ontario or who are studying outside Ontario, applications must be mailed to the Ministry. For complete details see the instructions on the BSWD/CSG-PDSE application.

Award: $1,000 toward tuition at an accredited Canadian post-secondary institution.




Applicants must:

  • Have confirmed registration to a full-time program of study in health care, criminal justice or community & social services for the upcoming school year
  • Attend an accredited Canadian post-secondary college or university
  • Be a Canadian citizens or permanent resident of Canada
  • Have a documented disability
  • Be under 20 years of age at time of application

How to Apply:

  • Submit an original essay of 500-700 words
  • Topic: “How your disability shaped your decision to study the program you chose”

Documents to Include:

  • Proof of high school graduation in preceding school year
  • Proof of Fall 2023 acceptance to an accredited post-secondary institution (proof or registration to health care, criminal justice or community & social services studies will be required before the scholarship is awarded)
  • Proof of Canadian citizenship or permanent residency
  • Documented proof of disability

Application Deadline

  • All applicants must submit essay & required documents no later than 6PM EST, July 31, 2023.

Award Procedure

  • Only essays with qualified documents will be considered
  • Essays will be reviewed by Disability Credit Canada staff members and will be evaluated based on the originality, quality, and merit
  • Winner will be notified by August 31
  • Scholarship will be awarded upon receipt of proof of registration to a qualified program.

For more information please visit the DCCI website HERE


Storwell is offering an annual bursary of $2,000 in support of foster children to help them attend post-secondary schools and to offer a hand up as they make their way forward in life.

Fields of study: All disciplines are eligible

Type of award: Applicable to students entering or attending their first undergraduate degree


  • Applicant must have been a foster child with either CCAS or CAS or similar official Canadian foster care program and agrees to having the above organization verify the same.
  • Will be enrolled as a full-time student at a recognized post-secondary institution in Canada.
  • Canadian Citizen or Permanent Resident
  • Applicant must be 24 years of age or less at the time of application
  • Winner agrees to having their name, photo and post secondary institution displayed on our website

Value: $2,000

Number available: One bursary per year

Duration: One time payment, students may re-apply annually

Eligible institutions: Any recognized general/vocational College or post-secondary institution in Canada or USA

How to apply: To be considered for this bursary, simply fill out the application form found at by December 31st of each year.

This is an annual bursary, you may apply at any time your application will be put towards the next award. All information submitted on this form is strictly confidential. For more information: contact

More Info

To investigate other sources of financial aid, students should contact their institution’s Special Needs services.

The following websites may have additional financial aid information:

National Education Association of Disabled Students at:


Project GOLD – Generating Opportunities for Learning Disabilities

Project GOLD is a free program that assists adults with learning disabilities or ADHD to better understand their learning disabilities in order to achieve and retain meaningful employment. The program includes a return to work action plan, employment-related workshops, job search support, and job coaching.

YMCA – S.P.R.I.N.G (Employment program for persons with disabilities)

If you are

  • A person with a disability
  • Unemployed, working under 20 hours per week
  • Looking to improve your employability skills
  • A resident of York Region

We can help

  • Access one-on-one assistance, life skills and pre-employment workshops
  • Connect with employers who are looing to hire
  • Set up job shadowing and training


Learning Disabilities Association of Toronto District

Do you struggle with finding meaningful employment?

Eligible participants will be:

Between 15-30 yrs

  • A Canadian Citizen, permanent resident, or granted refugee protection status
  • Looking for employment
  • Legally entitled with work in Canada, according to Ontario legislations and regulations
  • Able to commit 30 hrs per week for 6 weeks of curriculum and 30 hrs for 12 weeks or work placement

For more info and application details, please contact us at Email; or 416-229-1680

Canadian Council on Rehabilitation and Work

CCRW has a wide range of programming available in-person or virtually in Newfoundland and Labrador as well as across Canada.

The definition of a disability to them is simply an individual who may face a barrier when seeking employment and does not require a medical diagnosis. Disclosure of disability is also not required but knowing that an individual identifies as someone living with this a disability/barrier to employment is all they need to know how they can help.

They offer: • job search assistance

                     • employer incentives

                     • accommodation assessments

                     • consulting services

                     • a variety of workshops

Additionally, they provide a range of services for employers, from consulting, to hiring and retention, and disability confidence training.  

To contact them for general inquires or to discuss any questions you may have contact them at

Reading Lists

Parents of children with ADHD

A Booklist for Parents of children with ADHD

Download PDF
Adults with ADHD

A booklist for adults with ADHD

Download PDF
Children with ADHD

A booklist for children with ADHD

Download PDF
Reading list for females

A booklist for women and girls with ADHD.

Download PDF


BC Children’s Hospital - Practical parenting strategies: Free learning series called Rolling with ADHD link -


Being Me with ADHD -


Children and Adults with ADHD -Chadd -


Adults with ADHD -ADDA -

ADHD and Education

Assessment and Diagnosis

ADHD Symptoms

ADHD Treatment


The preschool age and environment are the perfect time and place to recognize ADHD impairments and begin to understand and support these children. Not allowing the child with ADHD to remain at preschool is a disservice to the child as well as the staff who should take the opportunity to learn about ADHD as they will undoubtedly have more children with ADHD cross their path in the future.

Behaviour Management

Behavioural therapy is the most effective if done as uniformly as possible between home and school. The implementation of behavioural support and strategies can occur even before an ADHD diagnosis, since these techniques are beneficial for all children. The key to ADHD behaviour management is consistency and immediacy through clear, calm positive communication. Children with ADHD are often subjected to an abundance of scolding, nagging and general negative interaction with adults and even other children. This takes a huge toll on their self-image and wellbeing.
Since ADHD is a very individual disorder which presents in a variety of ways, across a range of severities and commonly with coexisting disorders, finding the exact right behavioural plan may take some time. The help of an expert in the field of ADHD may even be required to get the process on the right track. However, here are some basic principles on ADHD behavioural techniques that often work in the home and school setting.

Behavioural Management Techniques for Home and School


  1. Set up a limited number of rules focusing on a few hard and fast concepts such as we do not hurt people, we stay safe.
  2. Structure the environment and set up consistent routines; consistency helps the formation of habits decreasing the load on executive functioning skills.
  3. Pay attention to the child when they are doing what you want then to do and ignore nuisance behaviours or minimize your interactions around them.
  4. Use positive consequences like praise, or small rewards like: additional time doing an activity they love, a sticker or star, or points toward a larger reward when the child is doing what you want them to do.
  5. Be immediate and very specific when giving positive feedback on appropriate behaviour so they know exactly what they did right.
  6. Give brief, simple instructions, without too many steps informing them of what you want them to do and not what you don’t want them to do.
  7. Have them report back to you when they have completed the first step or two so you can praise and then share the next step or two in the sequence.
  8. Provide visual prompts like picture charts as reminders.
  9. Decrease distractions.
  10. Be proactive: anticipate times and places when their self-regulation will be challenged and set up accommodations and strategies to help them cope.
  11. Use parent/teacher social coaching to help the child acquire and practice social skills.



There are a variety of medical professionals that may assess/diagnose (and treat) ADHD:

Who can Assess and Diagnose ADHD
Wait time
Is there a Cost
Referral from a family physician or walk in clinic
Who can Assess and Diagnose ADHD
Family Physician (with ADHD training)
Wait time
1-8 weeks
Is there a Cost
No - Covered under provincial health plan (i.e OHIP)
Referral from a family physician or walk in clinic
Who can Assess and Diagnose ADHD
Child and adolescent psychiatrist
Wait time
1-6 months
Is there a Cost
No - Covered under provincial health plan (i.e OHIP)
Referral from a family physician or walk in clinic
Who can Assess and Diagnose ADHD
Developmental Pediatrician
Wait time
2-8 months
Is there a Cost
No - Covered under provincial health plan (i.e OHIP)
Referral from a family physician or walk in clinic
Who can Assess and Diagnose ADHD
General Pediatrician (with ADHD training)
Wait time
1-6 months
Is there a Cost
No - Covered under provincial health plan (i.e OHIP)
Referral from a family physician or walk in clinic
Who can Assess and Diagnose ADHD
Psychologist (with ADHD training) – Psychologists cannot prescribe medication
Wait time
2-8 weeks
Is there a Cost
Yes – workplace or private benefits may cover a portion of the cost. Fee is approximately $1,000-$2,000
Referral from a family physician or walk in clinic
Who can Assess and Diagnose ADHD
Neurologist (with ADHD training)
Wait time
Is there a Cost
No - Covered under provincial health plan (i.e OHIP)
Referral from a family physician or walk in clinic

Questions to ask your healthcare provider:

  • What is the current wait time?
  • Do they provide long term follow-up care?
  • Is a full screening for other potential medical disorders part of the assessment process?
  • Are there additional cost associated with the ADHD assessment



The assessment and diagnosis of ADHD by a medical professional is generally covered by your provincial health care plan, however, always ask if any additional fees will be charged.

The potential diagnosis of ADHD should include;

  • A medical history
  • As psychiatric medical history
  • Screening to rule out any possible physical disorders
  • Vision and hearing test



Psychologists may assess and diagnose ADHD, but they cannot prescribe medication. Psychologists are not covered by provincial health care plans, but may be partially covered by private health coverage. Speak to the psychologist prior to contacting your private insurance provider.


Psychoeducational assessments are different from an ADHD assessment.

Children who are struggling academically may seek a psychoeducational assessment to assess whether any coexisting learning disabilities (LDs) may exist along with ADHD. A complete assessment of a child’s learning strengths and needs is essential for a student who continues to be impaired at school. Psycho-educational assessments cost approximately $2,000-$4,000

Important Things to Know About the Health Care Professional that you choose:

  • Their expertise in the area of ADHD
  • Their accreditation and registration (pertinent to a psychologist’s ability to diagnosis)
  • What is the current wait time?
  • Do they provide long term follow-up care?
  • Is a full screening for other potential medical disorders part of the assessment process?

For more information about ADHD assessments please contact our Resource Navigator at

Common symptoms of ADHD in Preschool

While many behaviours such as: inattention, distractibility, being fidgety, tantrums and oppositional behaviour are common for preschool children these behaviours in a child with ADHD are more extreme. They are more frequent and more intense. Most often young children with ADHD will stand out in a group of children and appear to function as a younger child.

However, each child with ADHD will be unique; they will present with a different group of ADHD symptoms, on a spectrum from very mild to very severe. Symptom levels can vary throughout the day and from day to day but will always become more apparent when the environment and tasks before the child challenge their impaired skills.

Questions to Ask Yourself


  1. Are the child’s behaviours similar to other children their age?
  2. Would their behaviours appear to mimic those of a younger child?
  3. Do the behaviours change in different settings? (symptoms will increase when placed in an environment that challenges their impairments)
  4. Is the expected behaviour that you are NOT seeing something that would be developmentally appropriate for their age?


  • continuously moving, bouncing a knee, jiggling their foot, tapping a pencil, and the inability to sit without squirming;
  • frequently needing to get up and move around;
  • being unable to stop for meals, naps and cuddles;
  • being unable to stay on task when they must sit still;
  • the inability to sit still for calm activities like eating and having books read to them;
  • talking and making noise excessively;
  • running from toy to toy;
  • being unable to be still even for an activity they enjoy;
  • constantly climbing, even when instructed not to do so; and
  • running and moving so quickly that it results in injury, even after being cautioned.


  • displaying extreme impatience with others;
  • grabbing toys and things from others;
  • refusing to wait their turn when playing with other children;
  • interrupting when others are talking;
  • blurting out comments at inappropriate times;
  • intruding when others are playing, rather than asking if they may join in;
  • being aggressive in their play;
  • lacking caution with strangers;
  • displaying overly bold behaviour;
  • showing unusually low fear in situations that can lead to dangerous consequences, potentially endangering self or others; and
  • destroying toys and other things due to not thinking of the consequences.

Executive Functioning

  • difficulty following directions, forgets what to do;
  • unable to remember, or confuses the order of steps of a task;
  • difficulty with starting and completing tasks;
  • difficulty estimating how long it will take to do something;
  • insisting that things are done in a certain way;
  • acting out instead of expressing feelings;
  • unable to keep track of belonging, frequently loses things;
  • unable to manage or find things in their cubby;
  • inability to organize and get things together at the beginning or end of the day;
  • unable to remember what they were going to say or do;
  • off-topic when speaking or answering questions;
  • becoming agitated when the schedule or the occurrence of an expected activity changes; and
  • needing consistent rules that they interpret as being fair

Emotional Regulation

  • more intense and unexpected tantrums than those of other children their age;
  • difficulty controlling their emotions with displays longer and more intense;
  • becoming easily frustrated and expressing their frustration in unacceptable ways;
  • being prone to outbursts;
  • feedback or expulsion from preschool due to aggressive and impulsive behaviour;
  • being unable to play peacefully with others;
  • the inability to settle down after being excited or active;
  • displaying aggression, to the level of having to remove the child from a situation, due to the inability to regulate their emotions; and
  • being louder and noisier than fellow playmates

Physical Development

  • delay in speech development,
  • gross motor skill delay (inability to hop on one foot by age 4),
  • fine motor skill delay, (difficulty with colouring, using scissors, tying shoes, printing),
  • difficulty with sleep,
  • sensory issues, and
  • delayed toilet training.

Treatment of ADHD in Children under 6 yrs

ADHD should be treated using a “multimodal‘ approach”. Simply put, this means using more than one type of treatment to manage ADHD symptoms. Examples of ADHD treatments are listed below

Psycho Education

Educating parents, individuals, and any other adults who routinely interact with the child about ADHD is the first and most important component of an ADHD treatment plan. Studies have shown that providing education on ADHD greatly increases the chance that treatment will continue long term. The more a family understands about ADHD and how it affects their child, the better they will be at making informed choices and implementing strategies and accommodations in the home. insert link to events page – parenting programs

Classroom/school Accommodations

It is important to seek classroom accommodations for your ADHD child, please refer to our section on education (insert link)

Behavior Therapy

Guidelines on ADHD for preschools developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) state that behaviour therapy should be the first line of treatment for children four and five years of age. However, the guidelines go on to state that if behavioural therapy is not accessible, has not worked, or if symptoms are severe enough that the child or family are at risk of harm, medication can and should be considered. Insert link to“Understanding early childhood ADHD”


Exercise produces several hormones that can benefit brain functioning and help improve focus.


Mindfulness can assist with better awareness of attention, manage stress, be less reactive to impulsive thoughts and be less judgmental of ADHD symptoms.


Sleep plays a major role in our health and development. For example, sleep is important for learning, attention, and memory, academic achievement, and even physical growth1, 2. As such, it is important for children to get age-appropriate quality and quantity of sleep! According to the National Sleep Foundation, school aged children (6-13 years old) should receive between 9 and 11 hours of sleep each night3. Children who sleep less or who have poor quality sleep (e.g., up and down throughout the night) will not be able to perform their best during the day, especially in school.

PDF on ADHD and Sleep

Alternative Treatments

Access the Canadian Paediatric Society’s article on Alternative ADHD Therapies by clicking here.

Access a comprehensive article reviewing the evidence on Cognitive Training (brain training games) and brain training strategies by clicking here.

Medication Management – if required

It not usually recommended that children under the age of 6yr take ADHD medication, however in certain instances it may be required. Please speak with a knowledgeable ADHD physician to see if ADHD medication is right for your child.

In uncomplicated cases of ADHD, medication management is fairly straight forward and effective with minimal side effects. ADHD medication has been around for more than fifty years and there are thousands of published research papers on their safety and efficacy. There are two types of medications used to manage ADHD medication. For more information on medication please speak with a medical professional

  1. Stimulant medication.
  2. Non-stimulant medication

Please refer to the charts below for information on specific medications

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